From the history of beekeeping of Uzbekistan 28.08.2019 14:31
K.K.Rakhmatov, senior researcher of the Bee Department of the Research Institute of animal husbandry of Uzbekistan.
The history of beekeeping of the states of Central Asia is closely connected with the development of Agriculture. According to a number of authors, honey and bees appeared in the second half of the XIX century in Central Asia (the former Turkestan country) (O. Pospelov, 1900; N. Shavrov, 1911; L. Arens, 1930). For the first time, they noted that bees were brought to Tashkent in 1848, Tashkent in 1872, Fergana in 1880, Samarkand in 1898, and Kattakorghan in 1894.
During the Meatsen period, the territory of Turkistan is the lower part of the third Mediterranean Sea. The desert formed here later prevented the bees from living in the post-Turkestan period.
But were the bees deprived of the opportunity to move from Persia, Afghanistan or even Iran, at least to Southern Turkistan in historical times, where there were favorable conditions for their way of life: a long vegetation period, a short and mild winter, a variety of honey plants, especially in the foothills of the mountain and in the mountainous forest areas? Is there an opinion that in ancient times there was no bee-growing in Central Asia, which was later abandoned or destroyed by the invaders?
To confirm the final assumption, we can refer to the famous Kyrgyz epic "Manas". In its third chapter, it is about bees and honey. It is difficult to think that this is the stratification of the last centuries. It is noteworthy that the most valuable food products of honey are mentioned in combination with pork, meat, bread and tea. Information about the bees is accompanied by information about the power of the country, the number of inhabitants and livestock.
Article P.S.Massagetova (1927) Central Asian beekeeping area as a result of favorable conditions for beekeeping, there are many families of wild bees in the forests, and here is presented the development of whole fishery in a permanent form. In addition, the author writes that the bees found are limited by fire, and often mentioned that large areas of the valuable forest are ruined because of a few pounds of honey.
According to Le Arens (1930), the indigenous population of Central Asia called bees "Russian Wasps", completely incompatible with reality. In Uzbek, bees mean "honey bee" and "honey bee", and in Tajik means "honey bee", which is called "oru-honey" and is translated into Russian.
Bee products have been consumed by farmers of the peoples of Central Asia since ancient times. The great Uzbek scientist Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna) wrote a lot about bees, honey and wax in the book "Medical laws", one of the wonderful cultural monuments of the peoples of Central Asia.
For example, in the second book, "on ordinary medicines and means"in the gi section, Abu Ali ibn Sina said that" Honey is hidden from the eye of the dew that falls on flowers and other plants that collect bees, it affects the behavior of bees, and bees collect it for food and storage, there is an acute and poisonous type of honey. The best honey is spring and summer."
A.Joravko (1843) published in his article "the experience of the historical development of beekeepers in Russia" ("works of a Free Economic Society"), and a separate article shows that in 1792 a wide beekeeping was established in the Tomsk region. His honey competed at the Irbit fair with bashkir, Kirghiz and cheremis honey in its excellent quality. So, at the end of the XVIII century, that is, L.E.Almost a hundred years ago, by Arens and other authors of the era of bringing bees to Central Asia, the Kyrgyz Honey was known outside the region.
In order to determine the true history of the emergence and development of beekeeping in Central Asia, it is necessary to study the history of beekeeping in the Middle East - Persian, Afghan materials, as well as cultural monuments of Central Asia. According to the available literature, beekeeping began to develop as an agricultural network in former Turkestan from the end of the XIX to the beginning of the XX century. Its prevalence among the local population was supported by Russian soldiers and officials.
It is worth noting that in the Samarkand region, beekeeping was especially successfully developed. The first experimental beekeeping farm was opened here in 1903 year. Initially, he was engaged in Russian beekeeping, but later the local population became interested in a new profitable business and began to develop it successfully. This is R in 1902.Tursunbaeva and M.The fact that yaukashtaev was elected an honorary member of the Society of beekeepers under the Society for the harmonization of animals and plants of the Russian emperor is evidence of this.
Nomadic beekeeping is also developed. The local population transferred bees to sources of honey collection in tuya and husks. However, the prevalence of beekeeping among the local population is delayed by the lack of literature in the languages of the local population.
Therefore, in 1908 in Samarkand, L.L.The publication of langotrot's book "bees and nests" in Uzbek became a very important event. The translator of this book Kakaibay Abdukholikov received all the necessary conditions and presented the material in the form that was convenient for beekeepers. Once Upon a time this book was a beekeeping textbook for the inhabitants of the Turkistan region. At present, this bibliographic is a unique work.
There is no detailed information on the state of Central Asian beekeeping in the pre-revolutionary period. A. Kovalevsky (1923 y.) it shows that until 1914 year the bees in the application were counted less than 100 heads, and in the Namangan district they were considered small. In the markets of Turkistan, several honey is sold per year. Beekeepers took part in the exhibitions organized in Petrograd and other cities.
In the Namangan District of 1918 year, the Union of beekeepers, which united 40 people, was established. N.Y.N.Y.Chile (1915 y.) according to the data, in 1909 year in Central Asia there were a total of 1844 beekeepers and 83907 Bee families (Bee families and Bee families were taken into account).
At the meeting of the Department of Agriculture, which was held in Tashkent City in 1926 year 28 january, compared to the pre-war period (1914-1918-yy.), It was reported that the number of bee families in Central Asia decreased by 60 percent.
In some lowlands, beekeepers used loy-hives, which protect the bees from excessive heat. In the stationary bees of the mountain range and mountain regions there were bees in two-three-Corps and dadanovsky nests, as well as in half-suits and solar nests in 30 and even 50 squares.
Especially important was the beekeeping on account of the expansion of cotton, alfalfa and other fodder leguminous plants, as well as the cultivation of melons and orchards.